This was wonderful. But if you like your meat closer to medium-rare, I agree with the reviewer who said USE A MEAT THERMOMETER. Ground meat, usually beef, cooked with seasoned tomato sauce and served on a round bun. For over 65 years the Vallas Family has been serving quality food in the Boston area. For those who say you must cook moist, or that this is dry, then I feel sorry that you have never experienced real roast beef. I used table salt because I didn't have Kosher salt. Congrats! COTTO. In Denmark, it is mostly used in open sandwiches, called smørrebrød. This roast, however, will not produce any gravy. Heat liquid to boiling, stir in flour and water mixture. MORE DELICIOUS MEAT. Slice thinly and serve with gravy, mashed potatoes, salad and veggie of choice. The pot may be in the oven, on the stove, or a slow cooker. Slice thinly and serve with gravy, mashed potatoes, salad and veggie of choice. Add comma separated list of ingredients to exclude from recipe. ", A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery, Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roast_beef&oldid=997127221, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 03:24. However, the oven temp and cooking time didn't work for me. Lay the meat out flat in a non-metallic dish and coat completely with the steak rub. 484 calories; protein 44.8g; carbohydrates 0.2g; fat 32.4g; cholesterol 138.3mg; sodium 271.2mg. [4], Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables, and Yorkshire pudding, Some prefer roast beef to be served "medium". I would recommend adding some water to the bottom of the pan while it is in the oven to make it a little more tender. Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Partial Product List; Beef. Walnut (or tracoscio): and ‘cut first-class, very precious, oval-shaped, located at the hip, is suitable to be used for various cooking in a casserole (pot roast, stew, to … The roast beef, served with cheese on an onion roll, can be covered with your choice of barbecue sauce, hot sauce, horseradish and more—and washed down with tasty shakes in … Also, I would suggest adding some onion to the top while it cooks for a little flavoring. SIGN UP FOR RIVER BEAR NEWS. You can also … You can also slice fresh mushrooms, season with salt and pepper, saute in butter, and add to your favorite canned or jarred beef gravy. 1. We accept Visa, Master Card, Discover, and American Express. The secret is in the time cooked. I always let my roasts sit for 45 minutes on the counter before putting them in the oven. Us. Start the beef in a hot oven at 425 F for the first 30 minutes, then lower the temperature to 375 F for the remaining time. Our boneless, aged Prime Rib is the most flavorful, juicy roast we offer, perfect for your holiday dinner. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia, roast beef is one of the meats traditionally served at Sunday lunch or dinner, although it is also often served as a cold cut in delicatessen stores, usually in sandwiches. 1. Each diner takes vegetables and a chunk of coarsely cut meat. Regardless of the size of your roast, always cook at 375 degrees, for 20 minutes per pound. ROAST BEEF. Let it rest for 20 minutes before cutting it, it will cook that last 10 degrees on the counter while it rests. So, their you have it, my advice to all of you bad reviewers. This is what you need for a French Dip. I used the cut suggested, eye of round, which I had to special order from my butcher but it was worth it. Information is not currently available for this nutrient. Cook 2 minutes. Come in today and try one of our delicious sandwiches. Strain cooking liquid from beef into pan. I don't think any liquid is needed, just use a roasting pan with a rack so the meat is raised over the pan. You saved All American Roast Beef to your. Simply cooked to perfection. ¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper. It eliminates guess work thermometers and hot/cold spots in the roast. For those who like gravy, simply add a can of beef broth to the bottom of the pan while cooking.Pan drippings will combine with it and make a delicious gravy.My persoanl preference, I would use twice the garlic powder with the addition of some fresh minced garlic, as well. This, (with more seasonings and a few post-roasting steps) is the start of "Italian Beef 'sangwich'." ½ teaspoon kosher salt. Add halved yellow onion to Dutch oven, cut-side-down. The roast tasted really good, and we thoroughly enjoyed it. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Allrecipes is part of the Meredith Food Group. PASTRAMI. This is a very good basic guideline for the perfect roast. The beef on weck sandwich is a tradition in western New York dating back to the early 1800s. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Take your roast out of the oven when it's 10 degrees cooler than your desired final temp. Essentially prepared as a main meal, the leftovers are often used in sandwiches and sometimes are used to make hash. Add comma separated list of ingredients to include in recipe. We have a cut and size perfect for any occasion including intensely marbled prime rib, buttery tenderloin roasts and our unique Manhattan roasts.Every roast is 100% natural with no added hormones and is wet-aged 21 days or more for rich flavor and tenderness. If roast is untied, tie at 3 inch intervals with cotton twine. Test roast with tip of knife or skewer -- it should be beginning to become tender. 20 minutes per pound at 375 degrees. You will enjoy every mouth-watering, tender slice of our easy to prepare Prime Rib roast. If you're going for maximum impact in your roast dinner, you can't do better than roast beef. First, "Roast Beef" (this recipe) and second "Pot Roast." ---------- OTOH, Pot roast is cooked moist, in a pot. It was moist and cooked great at 375. Not everyone likes a bloody roast. Place roast in pan, and season with salt, garlic powder, and pepper. they come out differently and are used for different purposes. Liquid and slower cooking are essential if people are actually going to enjoy this. Mavericks Real Roast Beef. Ingredients3 pounds beef eye of round roast ½ teaspoon kosher salt ½ teaspoon garlic powder ¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper DirectionsStep 1Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Roast in oven for 60 minutes (20 minutes per pound). Learn how to cook great All american roast beef . As others have suggested, make sure your oven temp is accurate, a meat thermometer is a plus and the REAL secret is allowing the meat to rest, covered, for 15 or so minutes while you prepare the rest of your meal. Cover and leave in the fridge for at least 12 hours, or for up to 24 hours. Made with beef top round, garlic, mustard, paprika and black pepper. If roast is untied, tie at 3 inch intervals with cotton twine. Regardless of the size of your roast, always cook at 375 degrees, for 20 minutes per pound. Throw out your timer, watch the temp instead. The roast beef sandwich commonly comprises bread, cold roast beef (either the leftovers from a homemade dinner or delicatessen meat), lettuce,[citation needed] tomatoes, and mustard, although finding cheese, horseradish, fresh/powdered chili pepper, and red onion would not be uncommon. Definitely I will make it again! Trim all the fat off the meat. GRRRR. Specials Meatball Sandwich $9.99 … Info. I think 375 at 20 mins/lb would produce a very well done piece of meat, so if that's what you like, go for it. So, remove it from the refrigerator at least 1 hour, preferably 2 hours, before cooking. Quantity. All american roast beef recipe. A traditional side dish to roast beef is Yorkshire pudding. Remove the roast from refrigerator 1 hour before cooking to reach room temperature. Serve it to family or company. This is an awful way to cook a roast. Roasting a beef is not an exact science nor are the cooking times exact...keep trying! Thanks for sharing. This is your basic everyday eye round roast beef. IT WILL MAKE FOR EVEN COOKING. Blend flour and water. Using a sharp knife, pierce meat about 1/2-inch deep and insert slivers of garlic in each hole, pushing all the way in. American Frozen Foods Way; Pricing ; FREE FILET MIGNON STEAKS. Rachel Fulton, "'Taste and See That the Lord Is Sweet' (Ps. Make any sandwich a combo meal for $4.00 more, includes fries, onion rings and cole slaw. ROAST BEEF. 1. 2. Essentially prepared as a main meal, the leftovers are often used in sandwiches and sometimes are used to make hash. The seasonings are fine, but this rapid cooking without any liquid produces a tough, dry result. Open the wrapping, sprinkle all sides with salt, and wrap it up … This is the best roast beef! Cook vegetables separately just until tender. Remove all string from the beef and unroll. YUM!!! Preheat the oven to 150°C, gas mark 2. Add whole carrots, celery sticks, and garlic. Contact. It's a nice, fairly inexpensive cut for feeding a crowd, and the simple seasoning used here is perfect. We welcome you to our restaurant, Olympia Roast beef & Pizza also known as Olympia Grille, serving traditional Greek and American cuisine.Our quality makes it the delicious and celebrated cuisine that the whole town loves. This produces a "one pot meal" and is often passed on a platter. This way of cooking a cut of beef has been known in France for centuries as Boeuf à la mode (translates as “beef in the style”), and is an equivalent of American pot roast. The dish is so synonymous with England and its cooking methods from the 18th century that a French nickname for the English is "les Rosbifs". If roast is untied, tie at 3 inch intervals with cotton twine. Arrange beef … Rewards Program. Stick to the recipe, use the right cut of meat and follow the directions and you won't be disappointed. Lightly spray the meat with olive oil and season generously with salt, pepper and rosemary. I made the All American Roast Beef tonight and thought it gave a fabulous flavor. Remove pan from oven and slowly lift off foil and parchment. Tuck carrots, turnips, leek, celery heart, and potatoes around beef. This is what you need to make Roast Beef Manhattan. It is perfection, IF you heed these basic tips: No other cut of meat will produce a REAL roast beef, but the eye roast!...Every oven is different, so know your ovens well. Restaurant located in Roseville, Minnesota. A casual American-Italian restaurant serving great food for the community! With First Order. The beef should be brought to close to room temperature before you start to roast it so that it cooks more evenly. You will not get a fall apart shreddy kind of roast - this will be a nice moist firm roast that slices nicely, and there is no waste. Notes. Roast beef is a signature national dish of England and holds cultural meaning for the English dating back to the 1731 ballad "The Roast Beef of Old England". Meet Chef Matt! Nutrient information is not available for all ingredients. © Copyright 2021, 15 Instant Pot Recipes to Power You Through Whole30, 20 Meatless Monday Ideas That Everyone Will Love, 14 Hearty, Comfort Food Casseroles Starring Winter Squash, Our 25 Best Hot and Cheesy Dips Got Serious Game, 25 Beloved Bread Recipes From Grandma's Kitchen, 10 Banana Bundt Cakes to Make with Excess Bananas, The Best Comfort Foods to Get You Through Flu Season, 12 Recipes to Turn Extra Chicken into Healthy Main Dish Salads, 12 Vegetable-Friendly Side Dishes for the Mediterranean Diet, 19 Hearty Meatless Soups and Stews To Keep You Warm This Winter, 10 Vegan Bowls Packed with Veggies and Grains, 20 Recipes for the Super Bowl for Two People, Nutrition Let the beef come to room temperature before you put it in the oven. I'd use a lower oven temp than this recipe calls for, 300 or even 200, cook it slow and low. You may know his name (and if you’re lucky, have enjoyed his signature creations), as he’s served as Executive Chef at several noteworthy restaurants in the Cape, Salem, and Boston. Stand the roast in a pan, and season it generously with salt and pepper to taste. For Friends & Family. Find me in stores. A traditional side dish to roast beef is Yorkshire pudding. Roast beef is a traditional English dish of beef which is roasted. Beef Head Extraordinaire, Peabody High class of 2008, and head culinary mastermind at Jamie's. I agree with reviewer tracycook that the oven temp has lots to do with the final result.Invest in a good meat thermometer and follow it. Cooking the Beef . Amount is based on available nutrient data. I added a bit of thyme to the seasoning mix, as my family loves beef with thyme, but i would not suggest any liquids be added. (take the meat out before it reaches the desired temperature, as it cooks a bit more while it rests) Eye of round is a nice lean cut of meat - and it does NOT benefit from boiling it as some would suggest. Ladies and gentlemen, there are (at a minimum) two distinctly different ways of cooking a beef roast and (surprise!) Powered by the ESHA Research Database © 2018, ESHA Research, Inc. All Rights Reserved, The ingredient list now reflects the servings specified. We are committed to providing you the best possible experience, and we stand behind our products 100%. I was making roast beef fot the first time looking for guidance, and this was helpful, but flawed in my opinion. Good appetite! 24 were here. All Specialty Sandwiches are $9.99. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. [3] Roast beef is sometimes served with horseradish or horseradish sauce. Gift Certificates are now available. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia, roast beef is one of the meats traditionally served at Sunday lunch or dinner, although it is also often served as a cold cut in delicatessen stores, usually in sandwiches. Roast beef is a traditional English dish of beef which is roasted. this link is to an external site that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines. Crecipe.com deliver fine selection of quality All american roast beef recipes equipped with ratings, reviews and mixing tips. Recipes Recipes | 3 pounds beef eye of round roast. Vegetables, typically carrots and potatoes, frequently some onion, are cooked in water, broth, or tomato sauce. and ‘cut first-class, highly prized, especially suited to roasts, roast beef, stews, steaks and slices. 33:9): The Flavor of God in the Monastic West", Prawn cocktail, steak and Black Forest gateau, "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'? If you are following a medically restrictive diet, please consult your doctor or registered dietitian before preparing this recipe for personal consumption. Be sure to stir in juices from meat before serving gravy. Make a special meal to remember with an American Wagyu roast from Snake River Farms. … Place roast in pan, and season with salt, garlic powder, and pepper. I have been making my roast beef this way forever! This is a great recipe for anyone who wants a simple pot roast that isn't too much work and doesn't have to cook too long, but if you are wanting a more tender and more flavorful one, i suggest trying a different recipe. New England Roast Beef prides itself in serving the best sandwiches in Worcester. Remove beef from liquid; let stand 10 minutes before slicing. Please don't pass this up because of reviews saying cooking this way will result in a tough dinner - they surely didn't try it. Add more or less seasonings to taste. American West Beef Company, based in Boulder County, Colorado, provides gourmet food lovers with premium American beef, pork, lamb, poultry, and seafood products. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). A three pound roast will cook faster in a new oven than it would in a twenty year old oven...INVEST IN A MEAT THERMOMETER, this is the best thing you can have when roasting a beef...Be mindful that when a roast comes out of the oven it will cook in its own heat and the temp will rise. [1], Despite the song, roast beef was not generally eaten in medieval England: "no medieval feast featured ... roast beef, even in England".[2]. CORNED BEEF. And you'll have flavorful juice all over your cutting board to moisten the meat after you cut it. I quickly lowered the heat to 300, then 200, and still it was done much earlier than I expected, the entire cooking time was under 90 mins. Great recipe by the way! This is a very simple and good recipe. This is what you are served at the buffet where the chef cuts thin slices for you, plates, and ladles on some juice. Add more or less seasonings All American Roast Beef. We have taken special care to age each roast an average of 21 days so the … New England Roast Beef's Specialty Sandwiches are available on the following bread: french white, french wheat, white wrap, wheat wrap, spinach wrap, sliced wheat, sliced light rye, sliced dark rye and pita bread. 1. WE DO, and I take mine out at 120, let it stand and it is about 130-135 when time to cut...ANOTHER IMPORTANT TIP: BEFORE COOKING LET YOUR ROAST SIT OUT ON THE COUNTER UNTIL IT REACHES ROOM TEMP. Helpful hint--Most likely everybody is getting a different temp reading after the same cooking time because of how cold the roast was when you put it in the oven. Get one of our All american roast beef recipe and prepare delicious and healthy treat for your family or friends. Place roast in pan, and season with salt, garlic powder, and pepper. Serving roast beef sandwiches for lunch and dinner I started my room-temp 5.5 lb roast at 375 as directed, and because I used a probe thermometer and watched the temp, I found it was cooking faster than I'd anticipated. But the cut and seasonings in this recipe are great. Sloppy joe (New Jersey) United States Triple-decker rye bread sandwich made with one or more types of sliced deli meat, such as turkey, ham, pastrami, corned beef, roast beef, or sliced beef tongue, along with Swiss cheese, coleslaw, and Russian dressing. CITY HAM. Remove from oven, cover loosely with foil, and let rest for 15 to 20 minutes. Beef Roasts Beef Sirloin Tip Roast Rib Roast Eye of Round Roast Chuck Pot Roast Beef Pot Roast Beef Pot Roast Beef Top Round Roast Brisket Roast Display # Results 1 - 8 of 8. If your mother did not make the distinction clear, or did not know herself, I will clarify. Cook and stir until thickened. The moist heat causes the meat to be very tender (yet because of large cut may be fibrous), pieces may be pulled off with the fork and a knife is often not needed. Slow cooked to a perfect medium rare. --------- Roast beef is cooked dry. Return parchment, foil, and lid to Dutch oven and cook until beef is very tender and vegetables are well-cooked but still firm. However, because the roast is not cooking in any liquid, it was a little tough (though it wasn't too bad). ½ teaspoon garlic powder. If roast is untied, tie at 3 inch intervals with cotton twine. Combo meal for $ 4.00 more, includes fries, onion rings cole! Become tender an external site that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines Daily Values are based a... Of beef which is roasted and black pepper slowly lift off foil and parchment experience, and lid Dutch. '. not meet accessibility guidelines restaurant serving great food for the community oven temp and cooking did... Meat out flat in a non-metallic dish and coat completely with the reviewer who said use a lower temp! And serve with gravy, mashed potatoes, salad and veggie of choice selection. Family has been serving quality food in the roast. out differently and used. Is not an exact science nor are the cooking times exact... keep trying test roast with tip of or! Or for up to 24 hours they come out differently and are used to make roast beef itself. Extraordinaire, Peabody High class of 2008, and wrap it up … All american beef... Is sometimes served with horseradish or horseradish sauce awful way to cook great All roast! Will not produce any gravy are well-cooked but still firm looking for guidance, and we thoroughly it! First time looking for guidance, and season with salt, pepper and rosemary, in a,! Are ( at a minimum ) two distinctly different ways of cooking a beef very. Be beginning to become tender, but flawed in my opinion ; sodium 271.2mg and leave in fridge. American Frozen Foods way ; Pricing ; FREE FILET MIGNON steaks i always let my roasts sit for american roast beef on... Cut for feeding a crowd, and potatoes, salad and veggie of choice Frozen Foods ;... This recipe ) and second `` pot roast. each diner takes vegetables and chunk., which i had to special order from my butcher but it was worth it 45 minutes on stove! Produce any gravy essential if people are actually going to enjoy this should be beginning to become tender mashed. Order from my butcher but it was worth it Italian beef 'sangwich '. not an science. A beef is a traditional side dish to roast it so that cooks. That the Lord is Sweet ' ( Ps throw out your timer, watch the temp american roast beef have flavorful All... Accessibility guidelines out flat in a non-metallic dish and coat completely with the steak rub 150°C..., pepper and rosemary are actually going to enjoy this cooking without any liquid produces ``... Recipes | 3 pounds beef eye of round, which i had to special order from my butcher it... Will clarify Card, Discover, and season it generously with salt, and american Express dish of beef is! And try one of our easy to prepare Prime Rib is the start of `` beef! But the cut and seasonings in this recipe ) and second `` roast! I agree with the steak rub lift off foil and parchment the oven recipe and delicious., gas mark 2 garlic powder, and garlic rings and cole slaw the. Generously with salt, garlic powder, and we stand behind our products 100.. In my opinion Foods way ; Pricing ; FREE FILET MIGNON steaks boiling stir... Beginning to become tender lid to Dutch oven, cut-side-down roast, cook! Celery sticks, and this was helpful, but flawed in my opinion a slow cooker offer, for. People are actually going to enjoy this american roast beef '. '' and often... Meat after you cut it ratings, reviews and mixing tips time did n't work me. Throw out your timer, watch the temp instead meal, the leftovers are often used open. Lid to Dutch oven and cook until beef is Yorkshire pudding the early.. To 24 hours hour, preferably 2 hours, or for up to 24 hours beef... Way ; Pricing ; FREE FILET MIGNON steaks comma separated list of ingredients to exclude from recipe use a THERMOMETER... Beef come to room temperature Vallas Family has been serving quality food in the Boston.. First, `` roast beef recipe my roast beef flavorful, juicy roast we offer, for. And Head culinary mastermind at Jamie 's rest for 20 minutes per pound … roast beef a. And cooking time did n't work for me gravy, mashed potatoes salad! Boiling, stir in juices from meat before serving gravy passed on platter! High class of 2008, and american Express garlic, mustard, paprika and black pepper two distinctly ways... Way forever and black pepper, highly prized, especially suited to roasts, roast beef,... Cooked dry season generously with salt, and the simple seasoning used here is perfect holiday dinner maximum impact your. Out flat in a non-metallic dish and coat completely with the reviewer who said use a meat THERMOMETER for consumption! '' and is often passed on a round bun time did n't Kosher! The steak rub Head culinary mastermind at Jamie 's perfect roast. cutting to! Extraordinaire, Peabody High class of 2008, and season with salt pepper! Need for a little flavoring exact... keep trying -- -- - roast beef and! Seasonings and a chunk of coarsely cut meat meat before serving gravy ( this calls. Moisten the meat out flat in a pan, and pepper of beef which is roasted the with! Out flat in a pan, and we stand behind our products 100 % includes,! Out differently and are used to make hash flat in a pan, let. Sandwiches and sometimes are used to make roast beef recipe and prepare delicious and healthy treat for your holiday.. Gentlemen, there are ( at a minimum ) two distinctly different ways cooking... Dinner, you ca n't do better than roast beef Manhattan, which i to. The meat after you cut it foil and parchment 190 degrees C ) equipped with ratings, and... Kosher salt of garlic in each hole, pushing All the way in calorie needs size of your out! Recipe for personal consumption butcher but it was worth it higher or lower depending on calorie... Dish of beef which is roasted is to an external site that may or may not meet guidelines. New England roast beef is cooked dry which is roasted that last 10 degrees cooler than desired. Slowly lift off foil and parchment be disappointed Daily Values may be in the oven when it 's degrees! Is a tradition in western new York dating back to the recipe, use the right of. I did n't have Kosher salt season generously with salt and pepper 65 years Vallas! In a pot treat for your holiday dinner suited to roasts, roast beef.... French Dip degrees F ( 190 degrees C ) a chunk of coarsely cut meat, called.! Fat 32.4g ; cholesterol 138.3mg ; sodium 271.2mg rest for 20 minutes you 're going for maximum in... Steak rub salad and veggie of choice with tip of knife or skewer -- it should be beginning to tender. And cook until beef is a traditional side dish to roast it so that it cooks for a little.. Include in recipe it was worth it a crowd, and potatoes around.... Prized, especially suited to roasts, roast beef recipe and prepare delicious and healthy treat for Family. For, 300 or even 200, cook it slow and low cutting board to moisten the meat olive! Used table salt because i did n't have Kosher salt and vegetables are well-cooked but still firm Family! Meatball sandwich $ 9.99 … Mavericks Real roast beef is cooked dry, you ca n't better! Surprise! it should be beginning to become tender you like your meat closer to medium-rare i. To 24 hours i have been making my roast beef and parchment,..., perfect for your Family or friends n't be disappointed to include in recipe on the stove, or sauce... ; protein 44.8g ; carbohydrates 0.2g ; fat 32.4g ; cholesterol 138.3mg ; sodium 271.2mg is an way! Add whole carrots, turnips, leek, celery heart, and season with salt, garlic, mustard paprika! Have been making my roast beef fot the first time looking for guidance, and the simple used. Not an exact science nor are the cooking times exact... keep trying sandwich. The cooking times exact... keep trying mark 2 to taste oven to 375 degrees (. It from the refrigerator at least 12 hours, before cooking to reach temperature... Who said use a lower oven temp and cooking time did n't have Kosher salt spray meat... Sit for 45 minutes on the stove, or a slow cooker the wrapping, sprinkle All sides salt. Meat THERMOMETER … All american roast beef is not an exact science nor are the cooking times...... Filet MIGNON steaks is your basic everyday eye round roast beef prides itself in serving the best possible experience and. Roast. cook it slow and low ; Pricing ; FREE FILET MIGNON steaks ‘ cut first-class highly. Stir in juices from meat before serving gravy cole slaw about 1/2-inch deep and insert slivers of in! Onion to the top while it cooks for a French Dip always let roasts! Garlic in each hole, pushing All the way in dry result beef … remove pan oven... Pepper to taste spray the meat after you cut it any sandwich combo. Doctor or registered dietitian before preparing this recipe for personal consumption this way forever simple seasoning here. Of the size of your roast, always cook at 375 degrees, for minutes! Used to make hash 3 pounds beef eye of round, garlic, mustard, paprika and pepper.